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Souvenir  History  of  Jackson  Hole 

JFritten  by 

' PUBLIC  SCHOOL  (1923-24  ) 

. Under  the  Supervision  of  Their  Teacher, 


Dedicated  to  the  First  Explorers,  Pioneers  and 
Early  Settlers  Who  Have  Helped  Us  In 
Gathering  Information  for  the  Following  Pages 

We  Are  Greatly  Indebted  to  S.  N.  Leek,  the 
First  Photographer  in  Jackson  Hole,  for  the 
Following  Pictures,  Except  the  One  of  the  Pupils 

i ^ G.  Ale  kaY 

This  book  belongs  to 

A d dr  ess 


Autograph  and  remarks  of  our  party. 

Name  Remarks 

Copyright  1924  by 

ROLAND  W.  BROWN,  JR.,  Dricgs,  Idaho 



ACKSON  HOLE — A name  associated  with  outlaws  and  “Old  Time 
West.”  A mountain  locked  valley,  entered  only  by  rough  winding 
trails,  through  mountain  passes  known  only  to  the  outlaws, 
(though  they  are  gone),  and  guarded  by  them  during  the  summer  time. 
The  early  winter  snows  closing  the  trails  till  the  following  June.  During 
the  winter  the  reflection  from  the  glistening  mountain  ranges  on  every 
side  prevents  the  snow  from  accumulating  in  the  valley,  so  that  the 
stolen  horses  of  the  outlaws  and  great  numbers  of  wild  game  animals 
may  winter  upon  the  nutritious  grasses  of  mountain  slope  and  meadow. 

In  early  spring  the  valley  takes  on  a carpet  of  green;  over  this  are 
the  grazing  herds  of  many  game  animals  and  on  every  side  is  the  honk 
of  the  nesting  geese,  the  quack  of  the  mating  ducks;  and  among  the 
trees,  now  clothed  with  new  foliage,  is  the  chirping  and  song  of  in- 
numerable birds  and  in  the  many  streams  the  splash  of  the  rising  trout. 
Above  this  on  every  side,  as  though  to  guard  it  from  the  outside  world, 
are  the  towering  mountain  ranges — pure  white  from  base  to  summit. 
Thus  during  early  days  rumor  described  Jackson  Hole. 

In  a narrow  sense,  Jackson  Hole  means  only  that  small  portion  of 
the  valley  near  where  the  outlaws’  cabin  was  located.  In  a broader 
sense  it  means,  all  that  portion  of  the  Snake  river  drainage  basin,  from 
the  Yellowstone  Park,  south  to  the  Hoback  river,  a region  of  about  3,200 
square  miles  in  extent. 

The  winding  trails  through  the  mountain  passes  are  replaced  by 
modern  highways,  over  which  hundreds  of  auto  parties  pass  back  and 
forth.  The  Forest  Rangers  and  local  people  try  to  make  them  welcome. 

The  fertile  valley  land  is  dotted  over  with  the  buildings  of  the 
pioneers  who  took  homesteads  and  are  trying  to  build  and  maintain 
homes  here. 

The  elk  are  still  in  sufficient  numbers,  if  taken  care  of,  to  more  than 
maintain  the  great  herds.  Nearly  all  other  game  is  fairly  plentiful. 
The  mountains  are  just  as  rough  and  just  as  wild  as  of  yore  and  here 
during  the  summer  the  big  herds  of  elk  and  other  game  may  be  seen 
upon  their  summer  range.  During  the  winter,  if  severe,  the  elk  are  now 
fed  hay  by  the  Federal  Government  and  State. 

The  valley  of  Jackson  Hole  is  more  noted  now  than  of  old  for  its 
wonderful  scenic  beauty,  its  many  rivers  and  lakes,  its  pleasant  summer 
weather,  its  excellent  trout  fishing,  its  beautiful  camping  places  and 
abundance  of  wild  animal,  bird  and  fish  life. 

This  frontier  country,  filled  with  overwhelming  bigness,  awe,  wonder 
and  fascinating  romance  is  not  without  its  history. 

Following  are  some  of  the  interesting  events  that  have  been  gathered 
from  the  first  pioneers  and  settlers  of  this  Valley. 

Page  Three 

Page  Four 

Peaks,  Dead  Mans  Bar  and  Snake  River  running  through  Jackson  Valley 

Where  Old  Snake  River  Flows 

The  following  lines  were  written  by  Arthur  W.  Stephens,  an  ex- 
forest ranger  from  Kearney,  Nebraska,  and  S.  N.  Leek,  a photographer 
and  writer  of  Jackson  Hole. 

Oh  take  me  back  out  West  again, 

Where  Old  Snake  River  flows, 

Across  the  flats  of  Jackson  Hole,  ' 

Where  the  gray  green  sage  brush  grows. 

I want  to  see  the  rapids, 

And  the  riffles  flashing  white, 

I want  to  see  the  quiet  pools. 

Where  big  trout  hide  from  sight. 

I want  to  see  the  canyons  deep. 

Thru  which  the  waters  pour. 

With  lofty  cliffs  that  tower  above 
And  echo  back  the  roar.  ) 

I want  to  taste  the  water. 

That  is  pure,  and  sweet,  and  clear. 

And  roam  within  forests. 

Where  are  bear,  and  moose,  and  dear. 

I want  to  see  the  Tetons, 

Where  the  rushing  waters  head, 

The  auiet  lakes  below  them. 

And  the  creeks  by  which  they’re  fed. 

I want  to  see  the  fields  of  snow. 

That  moisten  the  arid  plain, 

I want  to  see  the  meadows  wide. 

And  the  fields  of  growing  grain. 

I want  to  see  the  foot-hills. 

Where  a thousand  cattle  graze. 

With  white  mountains  in  the  distance. 

All  a shining  in  the  haze. 

I want  to  see  the  higher  hills. 

And  the  herds  of  elk  that  pasture  there, 

I want  to  see  the  flowers  and  birds. 

That  brighten  a landscape  wondrous  fair. 

I want  to  sit  in  camp  at  night. 

Within  the  fire’s  cheerful  glow, 

I want  to  hear  the  coyote’s  howling  cry, 
And  horse  bells  ringing  clear  and  slow. 

And  when  I hit  that  unblazed  trail. 

Across  the  Great  Divide, 

Grant  that  my  resting  place  may  be. 

By  Old  Snake  River’s  side 

The  music  of  it’s  waters  there. 

Will  soothe  my  last  long  sleep. 
And  towering  cliffs  above  my  bed, 
Tlieir  silent  vigils  keep. 

Page  Five 

Page  Six 

Jenney  Lake  and  Teton  Peaks 

Early  Events 

As  early  as  1865  Tim  Hibbard  came  to  Jackson  Hole  and  camped 
all  one  winter  near  the  east  side  of  the  present  Snake  River  bridge, 
which  was  called  Hibbard  Lake  and  Flat,  now  the  Ely  ranch.  The  lake 
has  been  drained  and  the  bed  is  now  farmed.  There  were  a great  many 
buffalo  heads  and  quite  a number  of  arrow  heads,  chipped  out  of  flint 
by  the  Indians  who  had  hunted  buffalo  in  the  early  days,  lying  about 
the  flat. 

At  the  mouth  of  Flat  Creek,  now  the  Scott  ranch,  members  of  the 
American  Fur  Company,  and  the  Hudson  Bay  Company  used  this  place 
as  headquarters  for  camp  supplies. 

James  Goodland  and  Dave  Brackenhridge  were  trappers  before 
1884  in  Jackson  Hole. 

The  first  white  people  to  settle  in  Jackson  Hole  came  in  the  year  of 
1884.  John  Carnes,  one  of  the  first  settlers,  had  an  Indian  wife. 

In  1885  R.  E.  Miler  settled  in  Jackson  Hole. 

About  this  time  some  early  trappers,  namely;  Lorenzo  Bebee,  and 
Carrol  Tompson  built  a round  log  cabin  on  the  present  Schofield  ranch. 

In  1886  Michell  Dipwater,  John  Dicks,  “Shorty”  Hoskins  and 
“Sandy”  Marshel  stayed  in  the  Valley. 

In  1887  William  Crawford,  John  Cherry,  Dick  Turpin  (whose  ranch 
is  up  Grovont  canyon)  and  John  Jackson  settled  in  the  country. 

In  1888  there  were  eighteen  people  living  in  Jackson  Hole.  There 
being  seventeen  men  and  the  Indian  wife  of  John  Games. 

In  1889  S.  N.  Leek,  Sellar  Gheney,  Brig  Adams,  Ed.  Blair,  Irvin 
Wilson  and  Sylvester  Wilson  settled  in  this  part  of  the  country.  At 
that  time,  there  were  sixty-four  people  located  in  Jackson  Hole. 

Jackson  Hole  and  the  near  surrounding  country  has  been  the  last 
range  for  the  elk  and  other  large  game,  after  their  natural  range  having 
been  taken  from  them.  Their  natural  range  was  the  more  open  plains 
where  they  could  shift  for  themselves  during  the  severe  winters.  As  the 
country  became  more  settled,  by  the  white  people,  they  drifted  toward 
the  mountains,  or  mainly  in  the  unsettled  Jackson  Hole  country.  In  the 
winter  of  1889  and  1890,  owing  to  the  severe  winter,  nearly  half  of  the 
great  herd  of  elk  died  from  starvation. 

Aldiough  the  buffalo,  antelope  and  deer  have  beeome  more  or  less 
extinct  there  is  still  quite  a few  mountain  sheej),  moose  and  elk — the 
moose  and  mountain  sheep  increasing  within  the  last  few  years. 

The  elk  herd,  which  was  and  still  is  the  largest  herd  of  wild  game 
are  being  fed  hay  during  the  most  severe  months  of  the  winter  by  the 
Lnited  States  Government  and  state  of  Wyoming. 

Th  is  herd  of  elk  is  estimated  to  be  about  9,000  head. 

Page  Seven 

Page.  Eight 

Grovont  Mountains  and  Elk  Up  Cachse  Creek  in  Winter 

First  White  Children  Born  in  the  Valley — Miss  Effie  Wilson,  now 
Mrs.  Earl  Simpson,  was  the  first  white  girl  born  (March  17,  1891)  in 
Jackson  Valley  and  Howard  Cheney  was  the  first  white  boy  born  (June 
20,  1891). 

Hayseed — John  Holland  had  the  first  garden  in  the  year  of  1891.  The 
first  hayseed  raised  in  Jackson  Hole  was  gathered  by  the  first  school 
teacher,  Mr.  Henry  Johnson,  from  hay  grown  on  Ervin  Wilson’s  ranch. 

Outlaws — The  last  trouble  with  the  outlaws  was  in  1892  when  two  of 
them  were  killed.  These  outlaws  were  horse  thieves,  who  had  been 
stealing  horses  and  were  driving  them  through  the  valley,  picking  up 
horses  as  they  went  through  Jackson  Hole.  During  the  winter  of  1892 
the  horse  thieves  wintered  a band  of  horses  in  the  valley.  It  was  in  the 
spring  that  the  settlers  had  trouble  with  the  horse  thieves,  or  outlaws, 
as  they  tried  to  drive  away  horses  belonging  to  the  settlers. 

Among  the  First 

Ferryboat — William  Meaner  had  the  first  ferryboat  across  the  Snake 
River.  He  installed  it  in  1895  about  fourteen  miles  above  where  the 
large  steel  bridge  is  now  located.  The  ferry  is  still  being  operated. 

Brickyard — The  first  brickyard  was  started  by  Jim  Parker  and  Mullon. 
They  made  the  brick  for  the  different  brick  buildings  in  Jackson.  The 
lime-kiln  was  just  west  of  Jackson. 

“Dude”  Ranches — The  first  attempt  to  start  a “dude”,  or  tourist,  ranch 
was  by  Harvey  K.  Glyden,  stepfather  of  the  actress,  Maude  Adams. 
The  first  “dude”  ranch  was  owned  by  S.  N.  Leek.  “Cap”  Smith  and 
Ben  Sheffield  were  the  next  parties  to  start  tourist  ranches.  Sheffield’s 
ranch,  or  Teton  Lodge  is  located  at  Moran,  Wyoming,  near  Snake  River, 
where  Jackson  Lake  empties  into  the  river.  This  ranch  is  located  at  the 
junction  of  the  three  roads  leading  to  the  southern  entrance  of  the 
Yellowstone  National  Park.  These  roads  are:  Twogwotee  Pass,  Ho- 

back  Canyon  road  and  Teton  Pass  road. 

The  J.  Y.  ranch  is  located  on  Phelph’s  Lake,  it  being  the  next  tour- 
ist resort  started  in  the  Valley.  It  was  started  about  the  year  of  1907 
or  1908. 

The  Bar  B.  C.  ranch  was  started  by  M.  S.  Burt  and  Dr.  Corncross  in 
1912.  It  is  located  on  the  west  bank  of  Snake  River,  three  miles  north 
of  the  Meaner  ferry  ranch.  Since  then  there  have  been  several  smaller 
“dude”  ranches  started  in  the  valley. 

Amoretti  Inn,  one  of  the  latest  and  largest  of  the  tourist  resorts,  is 
located  one  mile  north  of  Teton  lodge,  overlooking  the  east  shore  of 

Page  Nine 

Teton  Peaks 

/S’  .S'/ 


Page  Ten 

Ml  Moran  and  Jackson  Lake 

Jackson  Lake  at  the  junction  of  the  three  roads  to  the  southern  entrance 
of  the  Park. 

jFiRST  Drug  Store — The  first  drug  store  was  built  by  E.  C.  Steele. 
Part  of  the  building  was  used  for  his  home. 

About  1913,  James  Simpson  started  a Drug  Store  in  Jackson.  At 
this  time  he  was  running  a drug  store  at  St.  Anthony,  Idaho,  starting  a 
branch  store  in  Jackson.  The  store  was  located  in  the  Jackson  Club 
house,  owned  then  by  Mrs.  T.  W.  Lloyd  and  James  Simpson.  Jimmy 
Simpson  sold  the  drug  store  to  Bruce  Porter,  the  present  owner,  about 
August,  1919. 

Jackson  State  Bank — The  bank  was  founded  August  19,  1914.  Mr. 
Miller  was  the  first  president  and  Mr.  Harry  Wagner  was  the  first  cash- 
ier. The  first  board  of  directors  were,  Robert  E.  Miller,  Hyrum  W. 
Deloney,  Frank  S.  Wood,  John  H.  Wilson,  T.  W.  Lloyd,  0.  F.  Stewart, 

C.  L.  Brady,  P.  C.  Hansen  and  Harry  Wagner. 

The  First  Hotel — Mrs.  John  Anderson  ran  the  first  hotel  in  Jaekson 
Hole.  It  being  a house  on  Antelope  Pass  at  first.  This  was  moved  to 
the  present  sight  of  the  Jackson  Hotel  in  the  year  of  1901.  It  was  after- 
ward enlarged  and  covered  with  brick  as  it  appears  at  present. 

The  Churches — The  Mormon,  (Latter-Day-Saint),  church  was  the 
first  built  in  Jackson  Hole,  in  1905,  by  Parker  and  Mullins,  carpenters. 
The  cost  of  the  building  was  $3,000.  About  $2,500  was  donated  by 
the  fourteen  Mormon  families  living  in  the  valley  at  that  time.  The 
balance  of  the  money  was  given  by  the  church. 

The  Episcopal  Church,  Clubroom  and  Hospital — The  Episcopal 
church  was  started  in  1915  and  finished  in  1916.  St.  John’s  hospital 
was  finished  in  the  same  year.  It  is  the  only  log  hospital  on  record.  It 
is  very  well  equipped.  The  hospital  was  built  partly  by  subscriptions 
— the  church  finishing  the  building  and  keeping  it  in  repair. 

The  Resthouse  was  started  in  1912,  being  finished  in  1913.  It  has 
a nice  library,  reading  room,  gymnasium  and  fireplace. 

The  Baptist  Church — The  Baptist  ehurch  was  built  in  1912  under  the 
supervision  of  Mr.  Baxter,  then  the  Baptist  missionary  in  charge  of  the 
church  at  that  time.  A small  portion  of  the  money  was  donated  by  the 
people  but  most  of  it  came  from  the  American  Baptist  Publication  So- 

First  Car — The  first  car,  a Cadillac,  was  brought  into  Jackson  Hole  in 
1910  by  William  Dunn. 

Radio — The  first  radio  was  brought  into  Jackson  by  Harold  Sheard  in 


Page  Eleven 

Telephone — The  first  telephone  in  Jackson  was  brought  into  the  coun- 
try by  Fred  Lovejoy.  It  was  in  the  early  spring  of  1905.  The  two  first 
telephones  were  connected  up  between  the  Jackson  Hotel  and  Mose  Gilt- 
ner’s  ranch,  which  is  about  three  miles  west  of  Jackson. 

Mt.  Moran — Mt.  Moran  was  named  after  an  artist  who  painted  the 
Tetons  and  Mt.  Moran.  The  elevation  of  Mt.  Moran  is  12,100  feet. 

Monger  Mountain — Munger  mountain  is  located  in  the  southern  part 
of  Jackson  Hole.  This  mountain  was  named  after  a prospector  who 
m,ined  at  the  foot  of  the  mountain  for  gold. 

Store — The  first  store  in  Jackson  Hole  was  run  by  Charles  De  Loney 
Sr.,  a Civil  War  veteran,  in  1899.  At  that  time  Mr.  DeLoney  could 
stand  on  the  steps  of  his  store  and  see  nearly  any  kind  of  wild  game  but 
not  any  houses. 

Funeral — ^The  first  funeral  services  held  in  Jackson  were  those  of  Jim 
Goe.  The  services  were  held  in  DeLoney’s  store,  as  there  were  not  any 
churches  or  public  meeting  house  at  that  time.  Jim  Goe  was  also  the 
first  man  buried  in  the  Jackson  cemetery. 

Typewriter — The  first  typewriter,  an  old  style  Oliver,  was  brought 
into  the  valley  by  Charlie  Lee. 

Livery  Barn — The  first  livery  barn  was  built  across  the  corner  from 
De  Loney’s  old  store  building.  It  was  built  by  setting  posts  up  with 
boards  thrown  over  the  tops  of  the  posts.  Hay  was  then  thrown  over 
the  top. 

The  first  winter  a bear  decided  to  hibernate  in  the  hay  during  the 
cold  weather.  He  was  finally  discovered  by  some  men  while  pitching 
the  hay  off  from  the  bam.  They  dragged  him  around  in  the  snow,  but 
it  being  about  forty  below  zero,  Mr.  Bear  was  too  stiff  and  cold  to  put 
up  much  of  a fight. 

Wagons — The  first  wagon  was  brought  into  Jackson  by  John  Carnes  and 
John  Holland.  They  came  from  Green  River  by  way  of  Bacon  Creek 
and  down  the  Grovont  River,  in  the  year  of  1884. 

The  first  wagon  driven  over  the  Teton  Pass  belonged  to  R.  E.  Miller. 
It  was  brought  over  in  1885.  The  first  buggy  or  buckboard  was 
brought  over  the  Pass  in  1894. 

Sawmill — The  first  sawmill  was  a water  power  mill,  brought  into  Jack- 
son  Valley  from  Market  Lake,  Idaho,  1893,  by  S.  N.  Leek.  John  Wil- 
son assisted  him  in  hauling  it  in.  Ed.  Blair  helped  to  set  the  mill  up  on 
Mill  Creek,  on  the  west  side  of  Snake  River,  above  Wilson. 

Page  T welve 

ViCTROLA — S.  N.  Leek  had  the  first  Victrola,  or  gramaphone  in  Jackson 
Hole.  The  machine  was  presented  to  Mr.  Leek  by  the  editor  of  the 
“Recreation”  magazine,  for  a gift  for  his  writings  about  Jackson  Hole. 

Naming  of  the  Tetons — The  Tetons  were  called  Pilot  Knobs  at  first. 
In  1818  they  were  called  Trios  Tetons,  (meaning  three  or  Woman’s 
Breast  in  French).  The  Indians  called  them  Tee-win-at,  meaning  three 

Sheep — About  1896  there  was  a sheep  war  between  the  settlers  and 
people  wishing  to  bring  sheep  into  the  valley.  During  this  time  there 
were  about  two  hundred  sheep  killed.  There  was  an  agreement  made 
among  the  early  settlers  not  to  allow  sheep  in  Jackson  Hole  on  account 
of  the  valley  being  too  small  to  run  sheep  and  cattle  both.  Then  too, 
the  sheep  would  run  all  of  the  wild  game  out  of  the  country  besides  the 
ranges  would  all  be  ruined. 

Until  recently  there  have  not  been  any  sheep  in  the  valley.  Some 
of  the  settlers  are  starting  the  sheep  industry  at  present.  They  have  to 
keep  the  sheep  on  their  own  ranches.  They  are  not  given  permits  to 
graze  them  on  the  forest  reserve  or  game  preserve  lands. 

Fire — In  1889  a fire  burned  tbe  greater  part  of  the  forests  surrounding 
Jackson  and  Teton  Valleys.  The  settlers  volunteered  to  fight  the  fires. 

Valley  Surveyed — During  the  years  of  1892-1893  the  valley  was  sur- 
veyed by  Billy  Owen  and  associates. 

“Dead  Man’s  Bar” — Considerable  excitement  prevailed  over  the  pos- 
sibility of  finding  gold  in  paying  quantities  and  in  1879  a party  of 
prospectors  entered  the  valley.  So  certain  were  they  of  success,  that 
they  undertook  to  dig  a Water  way  from  Ditch  Creek  to  Snake  River,  a 
distance  of  six  miles  and  doing  all  the  excavating  with  ordinary  miner’s 

Some  trouble  arose  and  three  of  the  miners  were  killed  and  later 
buried  on  the  bar  where  they  had  been  working,  giving  to  the  bar  the 
name,  “Dead  Man’s  Bar.” 

Tusk  Hunters  Ordered  Out — During  the  early  days  there  were  those 
who  made  it  a business  to  kill  elk  for  their  teeth,  as  the  tusks  of  the 
elk  are  quite  valuable,  sometimes  killing  a great  many  elk  in  one  day. 

In  1908  the  settlers  ordered  the  tusk  hunters  out  of  the  country, 
giving  them  a very  short  time  to  get  out.  They  left  without  losing  much 
time.  Since  that  time  there  has  not  been  as  much  of  this  work  going  on. 
The  Elk  Were  First  Fed — In  the  winter  of  1908-1909  the  elk  were 
first  fed  by  the  settlers  of  Jackson  Hole.  Since  dien  the  state  of  Wyom- 
ing, with  the  help  of  the  United  States  Government,  have  been  feeding 
them  each  severe  winter. 

Page  Thirteen 

Going  on  the  Hunt 

R<ige  Fourteen 

In  Camp 

Riding  Plow — The  first  riding  plow  was  brought  into  the  valley  by 
Sylvester  Wilson.  It  is  now  at  the  Elias  Wilson  ranch. 

First  Stove — The  first  stove  was  brought  to  Jackson  Hole  on  a pack 
horse  by  R.  E.  Miller. 

First  House — The  first  house  was  built  of  logs  by  the  outlaws,  or  horse 
thieves,  on  the  old  Miller  ranch  northeast  of  Jackson,  on  what  is  now 
known  as  the  Government  ranch.  The  Government  authorities  bought 
this  ranch  and  three  or  four  more  for  the  purpose  of  raising  hay  to  feed 
the  elk  and  for  a winter  pasture  for  them. 

Blacksmith  Shop — The  first  blacksmith  shop  was  run  by  L.  C.  Edmon- 
son at  Wilson  and  later  a shop  was  built  by  Link  Imeson  at  Jackson. 
Those  who  ran  blacksmith  shops  later  were  James  Vogel,  Otto  Lumbeck 
and  his  father  and  a Mr.  Smith.  The  shop  is  now  run  by  Brown  and 

Music  for  the  First  Dances — Peter  Karns  and  Richard  Mayor  used 
to  play  for  the  first  dances.  They  took  turns  playing  for  dances.  Oc- 
casionally there  was  someone  who  would  chord  with  them  on  the  organ 
which  helped  a great  deal. 

People  used  to  come  from  all  parts  of  the  valley  on  skiis  to  attend  a 
dance,  making  it  an  all-night  party,  returning  home  the  next  day. 

James  Boyle,  a resident  of  the  valley,  still  has  the  old  violin  that 
used  to  belong  to  Pete  Karns. 

First  Band — The  first  band  was  started  in  Jackson  about  1904.  Dr. 
Melton  was  the  director.  They  had  a very  good  band,  consisting  of 
about  twenty-two  pieces.  They  used  to  go  to  different  towns  in  Idaho  to 
play  for  celebrations. 

Moving  Pictures — Mr.  Fred  Lovejoy,  manager  of  the  Jackson  Valley 
Telephone  Co.,  with  the  help  of  Mr.  S.  N.  Leek  established  the  first 
moving  picture  show  in  the  I.  0.  0.  F.  hall. 

They  planned  to  get  the  best  possible  films  from  Salt  Lake  City. 

The  first  show  was  produced  March  21,  1919. 

The  First  Chautauqua — The  first  Ellison-White  chautauqua  to  be 
given  in  Jackson  valley  was  during  July  17th  to  21st,  1921.  They  gave 
a program  at  Driggs,  Idaho,  then  coming  over  the  Teton  Pass  to  Jack- 
son.  The  people  in  the  valley  have  made  it  possible  to  have  a Chautau- 
qua each  year  since  that  time.  It  has  been  attended  each  year  by  a 
large  crowd  of  people. 

Courier — The  Jackson  Hole  Courier  was  first  started  in  1909.  Mr. 
Roy  Van  Vleck  and  one  other  party  financed  Mr.  Douglas  Rodebeck  in 
starting  the  Courier,  a weekly  paper. 

The  following  men  have  been  editors  and  publishers  since  that  time: 
Mr.  Hoagland,  Mr.  Edward  Hunnicutt,  Mr.  Richard  Winger,  T.  H.  Bax- 

Page  Fifteen 

Page  Sixteen 

Elk  on  the  Feed  Ground  in  Winter 

ter,  W.  G.  Bunn,  until  his  death  in  October,  1923.  His  death  was  caused 
by  falling  over  a cliff  while  hunting  mountain  sheep.  Mr.  Robert  Dai- 
ley has  been  publishing  the  paper  since  Mr.  Bunn’s  death. 

First  Airplane — The  first  airplane  to  be  brought  into  the  valley  flew 
over  the  Teton  Pass  from  Blackfoot,  Idaho.  The  pilot  was  H.  H.  Barker. 
He  brought  with  him  Jack  Winton,  his  mechanic.  They  were  here 
during  the  Frontier  celebration  September  1st  and  2nd,  1920.  They 
took  eighty  passengers  up  during  the  two  days  they  were  here.  They 
returned  to  Blackfoot  by  way  of  the  Grand  Canyon  of  the  Snake  River. 

Snake  River  Bridge 

For  several  years  after  the  people  settled  in  the  valley  they  had  to 
ford  the  Snake  river  going  to  Victor,  Idaho  by  way  of  Wilson,  Wyoming. 
The  river,  during  high  water,  is  very  treacherous — sometimes  washing 
great  holes  in  the  river  bed  in  just  a short  time  and  often  at  the  regular 
fords.  In  this  way  it  made  the  river  very  unsafe  to  cross.  Some  years 
the  settlers  operated  a ferry  boat  but  this  was  not  always  very  safe  for 
as  the  river  washed  new  channels  large  trees  would  come  rushing  down 
the  river  taking  the  ferry  boat  and  approaches  down  the  river. 

In  1915  the  settlers  built  a steel  bridge.  During  the  spring  of  1917 
the  channel  washed  around  the  bridge,  leaving  it  high  and  dry. 

For  months  communication  was  maintained  by  swinging  a crate  on 
pulleys  and  cable  until  the  low  water  period  when  a new  ferry  system 
was  installed  for  the  benefit  of  the  traveling  public. 

Representatives  were  sent  to  lay  the  matter  before  the  State  High- 
way Commission  at  Cheyenne. 

Lincoln  County  finally  pledged  $20,000  and  with  the  co-operative 
money  from  the  state  and  Federal  Government  the  erection  of  a bridge 
and  adequate  approaches  for  the  same  was  planned. 

Complicated  engineering  feats  were  necessary  to  insure  the  stability 
of  the  bridge  and  it  became  necessary  for  the  people  to  raise  an  addi- 
tional $14,000  before  construction  of  work  would  be  authorized.  This 
money  was  raised  by  popular  subscription  and  the  river  is  now  spanned 
with  a magnificent  steel  structure  properly  protected  with  an  intricate 
system  of  jetties,  rif -raffing  and  embankments  of  earth  and  stone. 

This  five  span  bridge,  the  longest  in  Wyoming,  is  650  feet  long. 

Page  Seventeen 

Winter  Road  Over  Teton  Pass 

Page  Eighteen 

Mountains  of  Jackson  Hole  in  July 

Lakes  and  Mountain  Peaks 


Jenny  lake  was  named  after  the  wife  of  Richard  Lee,  known  as 
“Beaver  Dick.”  His  wife  was  a squaw  named  Jenny.  They  camped 
at  Jenny  lake  the  greater  part  of  one  summer. 

Leigh’s  lake  was  named  after  Richard  Lee,  Jenny’s  husband. 

Phelp’s  Bradley  and  Tigard  lakes  were  named  after  early  surveyors. 

Nearly  all  of  these  lakes  are  surrounded  by  forests  and  beautiful 
scenery.  Good  fishing  and  boating  are  enjoyed  by  hundreds  of  people 
in  late  years. 

Robert  Ray  Hamilton  wanted  to  change  the  name  of  Jackson  lake  to 
Mary-Mer  lake,  naming  it  after  Mr.  Sargent’s  daughter  Mary,  and  Mer 
after  the  perfect  reflection  of  the  Teton  mountain  range  in  the  lake. 

Their  ranch  was  located  on  a high  promontory,  overlooking  the  lake. 
They  named  it  the  Mary-Mer  Ranch. 

Hamilton  and  Sargent  brought  the  first  sail  boat  into  Jackson  Hole. 

It  was  carried  over  Conat  Pass  by  four  men. 

One  day  Mr.  Hamilton  decided  to  go  antelope  hunting,  south  of 
Jackson  lake,  in  what  is  known  as  the  “pot  hole”  country,  where  the 
antelope  were  plentiful  at  that  time.  He  failed  to  return  within  a 
reasonable  length  of  time  when  Mr.  Sargent  started  a searching  party. 
After  seven  days’  search  Hamilton  was  found  where  he  had  been 
drowned  in  Snake  river.  He  was  buried  on  the  shores  of  Jackson  lake. 

Mr.  Hamilton’s  horse  was  found  with  an  antelope  tied  on  the  back 
of  the  saddle.  The  saddle  having  turned  had  caused  the  cinches  to  rub 
the  horse’s  back  sore. 

At  the  present  time  Jackson  lake  is  a large  reservoir  where  the  water 
is  retained  until  later  in  the  season  to  be  used  for  irrigation  purposes  in 
Idaho.  It  is  estimated  that  the  million  acre  feet  of  water  retained  in 
Jackson  lake  added  $23,000,000  to  Idaho’s  crops  in  1920. 


Teton  Pass — Prior  to  1885  all  provisions  and  supplies  were  brought 
to  Jackson  Hole  on  pack  horses. 

In  the  fall  of  1885  the  first  wagon  came  over  the  Teton  Pass.  They 
wound  around  the  timber  where  they  could  get  through.  When  they 
came  to  a fallen  tree  they  would  pile  brush  around  it  and  drive  over  the 
brush.  It  was  not  an  easy  proposition  to  drive  a team  and  wagon  over 
this  pass,  because  the  timber  was  very  thick  and  mountain  sides  very 
steep.  They  had  to  change  and  put  the  back  wheels  on  the  lower  side 
of  the  wagon,  also  pile  brush  around  to  get  over  the  fallen  trees. 

During  the  summer  of  1915  the  Forest  Service  made  a grade  that 
now  winds  over  the  scenic  mountain.  At  one  point  of  the  road  a person 


Mountain  Lion  and  Deer  in  their  Natural  Habitation 

Dage  Twenty 

Coyote  in  a Tree  and  a Carnprobber 

can  look  down  and  count  the  road  in  seven  places  directly  below  them 
where  it  switches  back  and  forth  making  a gradual  grade. 

The  Teton  Pass  road  is  the  western  entrance  that  leads  into 
Jackson  Hole  from  Victor,  Idaho,  the  nearest  railroad  point.  It  is 
twenty-eight  miles  from  Victor,  Idaho  to  Jackson.  It  is  now  one  of  the 
best  mountain  roads  in  the  United  States.  The  altitude  is  8424  feet  at 
the  highest  point  of  the  road,  or  2,000  feet  above  the  base  of  the  moun- 
tain. The  grade  is  fourteen  feet  wide. 

Tourists  coming  over  this  pass  can  readily  see  why  this  valley  is 
called  Jackson  Hole.  From  this  road  one  can  get  a view  of  a greater 
part  of  the  valley,  surrounded  on  all  sides  by  high  mountain  ranges. 

There  are  four  splendid  highways  leading  into  Jackson  Hole  as  in- 
dicated on  the  map.  Good  bridges  span  all  the  streams. 


Slide  mountain  is  up  Grovont  canyon.  It  derived  it’s  name  from  the 
fact  that  in  the  year  of  1908  it  started  to  crack  and  settle  from  the  top. 

The  north  half  of  the  mountain  broke  away  gradually  settling 
into  the  Grovont  river.  Great  cracks  appeared  in  the  mountain  so  deep 
that  you  could  not  see  to  the  bottom  of  them.  These  were  always  chang- 
ing. In  some  places  the  earth  would  settle  down,  around  a portion  of 
land  leaving  it  like  a small  mountain.  Some  of  the  trees  were  completely 
turned  upside  down.  The  tops  being  buried  and  the  roots  sticking  up  in 
the  air.  A great  deal  of  the  soil  was  of  a brick  red  formation  washing 
down  the  Grovont  river  making  it  of  a blood  red  color. 

It  was  impossible  to  establish  any  kind  of  a road  or  telephone  line 
over  the  mountain  for  several  years.  The  earth  was  always  shifting  posi- 
tion very  slowly.  One  day  the  road  would  be  alright  and  the  next  there 
would  be  great  crevices  that  could  not  be  crossed.  It  finally  dammed  off 
a portion  of  the  Grovont  river,  forming  a medium  size  lake.  This  lake, 
at  certain  seasons  of  the  year,  has  some  very  good  fishing  in  it.  This 
is  one  of  the  most  interesting  formations  in  this  section  of  the  west. 

Another  place  of  much  interest  is  “Lion  Rock.”  This  rock  is  located 
in  the  red  mountains  up  Grovont  canyon.  There  is  a cliff  that  looks 
like  a lion  lying  down. 


The  first  trip  to  the  top  of  the  Grand  Teton  Peak  (elevation  13,747 
feet)  was  made  in  1898  by  Billy  Owen,  Jack  Shives  and  Frank  Peter- 
son. They  spent  about  three  months  trying  to  reach  the  top  of  the  peak. 
They  built  a rock  monument  and  placed  a flag  on  top  of  the  peak.  The 

Page  Twenty-one 


Hoback  Road  and  River 

party  had  to  make  a trail  up  the  mountain  by  digging  steps  in  the  rock 
cliffs  and  using  ropes  to  pull  themselves  up  the  rock  walls. 

The  second  trip  to  the  top  of  the  Grand  Teton  peak  was  made  by 
G.  Blackbern,  A.  R.  Arrow  and  A.  Davis  on  August  5th  and  6th,  1923. 
They  made  the  trip  in  thirty-six  hours  from  their  base  camp.  They 
followed  nearly  the  same  route  that  the  former  party  took. 

These  men  report  that  they  found  initials,  a monument  and  the  flag 
that  the  first  climbers  had  placed  on  the  summit  of  the  Grand  Teton 

Indian  Troubles 

In  1894  R.  E.  Miller  requested  William  Manning,  of  Teton  Basin, 
to  come  to  Jackson  Hole  and  assist  him  in  settling  Indian  troubles.  The 
Indians  were  illegally  killing  game.  Mr.  Manning  was  given  full 
authority  over  this  work.  He  deputized  necessary  help,  then  they  located 
and  arrested  seven  Indians  about  twenty-five  miles  above  the  mouth  of 
Granite  Creek,  on  a south  branch  of  Hoback  river. 

A deputy,  that  could  talk  a little  Indian  language,  gave  the  Indians 
an  idea  that  they  were  going  to  hang  them.  The  Indians  tried  to  escape. 
Orders  had  been  given  to  use  necessary  force  to  prevent  the  Indians 
from  escaping,  also  to  shoot  their  horses  if  necessary. 

The  Indians  tried  to  escape  on  a divide  between  Hoback  river  and 
Granite  Creek.  One  fifteen  year  old  boy  and  one  old  sick  man  were 
killed.  One  Indian  was  shot  through  the  body  but  later  recovered.  The 
other  prisoners  escaped. 

During  the  time  that  the  Indians  were  making  an  attempt  to  escape, 
“Amy  Racehorse,”  a squaw,  was  swept  from  her  horse  by  a limb  of  a 
tree.  A papoose,  she  was  carrying  on  her  back  was  lost  at  the  same 
time  but  was  never  found.  Another  two-year  old  papoose  was  swept 
from  a horse  but  was  later  found  by  John  Wilson  and  Ed.  Hunter  and 
brought  to  Mr.  Manning’s  residence  where  he  was  cared  for.  Later  he 
was  returned  to  his  parents. 

This  same  little  Indian  boy,  after  growing  to  manhood,  went  over- 
seas and  served  in  the  World’s  War.  At  present  he  is  living  on  the 
Shoshone  Indian  Reservation  in  Wyoming. 

The  place  where  the  Indian  fight  took  place  is  called  Battle  Moun- 
tain, although  there  really  was  not  a battle  fought  there.  (See  picture  of 
“Battle  Mountain”). 

Authorities  notified  the  Governor  of  Wyoming,  with  a request  to 
notify  federal  authorities  and  let  them  take  what  action  they  cared  to, 
though  the  people  of  Wyoming  would  still  undertake  to  enforce  the  state 
laws:  This  case  was  taken  to  the  federal  courts  of  Wyoming,  and  later 

to  the  Supreme  courts  of  the  United  States. 

Page  Twenty-three 

1.  Beaver  Dam,  Lake  and  House.  2,  Pack  Outfit. 

(Tetons  in  background) . 4,  Moose. 

3,  Trout  Fishing  in  Snake  River 
5,  Evening  Meal. 

Page  Tiventy-foar 

Racehorse,  an  Indian  man,  agreed  to  appear  in  court  to  make  a 
test  case. 

Some  soldiers,  from  Ft.  Russel,  came  to  the  country  in  two  or  three 
groups,  with  the  purpose  of  investigating  the  killing  of  those  Indians 
and  to  protect  the  settlers  if  needed. 

General  Chaffie  and  General  Coppenger  and  an  Indian  agent,  from 
Fort  Hall,  came  with  the  troops  with  the  intention  of  trying  those  re- 
sponsible for  the  killing  of  the  Indians.  Mr.  Manning  showed  them  his 
authority  as  an  officer,  with  the  statement  that  he  was  willing  to  be  tried 
in  any  court  of  the  United  States. 

The  decision  of  the  federal  court,  by  Judge  River,  sustained  the 
Indians  in  their  contention.  The  matter  was  later  brought  to  the  Su- 
preme Court  of  the  United  States.  Attorney  General  Van  Orsdale, 
acting  for  the  state  of  Wyoming.  The  Supreme  Court  of  the  United 
States  reversed  the  Federal  Court’s  decision  and  sustained  the  state  laws 
of  Wyoming;  this  making  the  game  the  property  of  the  state  and  settling 
the  Indian  and  game  question  throughout  the  United  States. 


Jackson  Hole,  which  is  really  the  last  of  “The  Old  West,”  still 
has  its  Frontier  Days  and  Roundups. 

In  1910  some  of  the  settlers  organized  a company  staging  a Frontier 
Celebration  September  20-21-22,  1910.  They  had  some  wonderful 
shows,  in  that  they  were  so  real  and  showed  more  of  a western  spirit. 

The  Frontier  Days  Celebrations  which  are  held  in  the  latter  part  of 
August  or  the  fore  part  of  September  each  year,  attract  hundreds  of 
people  from  every  section  of  the  United  States.  They  usually  last  for 
three  days. 

During  this  time  they  have:  wild  horse  races,  bucking  contests, 
Roman  races,  relay  races,  tugs  of  war  and  many  other  contests. 

Coal  Mines  and  Mineral  Resources 

In  1892  the  Jackson  Hole  Coal  Co.  was  formed.  They  located 
fifty-two  coal  claims  of  160  acres  each.  Coal  was  in  sight  on  every 
claim.  The  assessment  for  all  the  claims  was  done  in  one  place,  by  a 
tunnel  which  ran  sixty  feet  on  a fifteen-foot  vein  of  coal.  The  tunnel 
was  dug  by  Dick  Turpin  on  the  south  side  of  coal  ridge,  north  of  Slide 
lake,  on  the  Grovont  river. 

At  that  time  there  was  not  a road  up  to  the  mine,  therefore,  there 
was  not  any  coal  hauled  out.  Since  then  the  mine  has  been  opened  and 
the  first  load  of  coal  was  brought  to  Jackson  for  Mr.  Harry  Wagner  in 
February,  1924. 

Page  Twenty- five 

The  first  mine  to  furnish  good  coal  was  opened  up  on  Lava  Creek, 
a tributary  to  the  Buffalo  river.  This  mine  was  owned  by  Mrs.  William 
Johnson  of  Lander,  Wyoming.  Coal  was  hauled  from  this  mine  for 
the  Jackson  lake  dam  and  other  places  in  the  valley. 

The  next  mine  was  opened  up  on  Cache  creek  and  has  supplied  lots 
of  coal  for  Jackson  people.  There  have  been  other  coal  mines  opened 
up  on  Buffalo  river  and  Ditch  Creek  as  well. 

Wyoming  has  more  coal  than  any  other  state  in  the  Union,  although 
it  does  not  mine  the  most.  Some  of  the  creek  beds  run  through  a good 
grade  of  coal,  indicating  the  enormous  amount  of  coal  in  this  section. 

Jackson  Hole  is  rich  in  other  mineral  resources — the  gypsum  on 
Hoback  river,  the  copper  and  graphite  on  Buffalo  river,  the  ferric  oxide; 
giving  the  mountains  of  Grovont  canyon  their  red  color,  together  with 
the  lead,  mica  and  glena. 

With  everchanging  natural  formations  give  much  fascination  to 
those  interested  in  geology. 

Early  Explorations  and  Settlements 

With  extracts  from  Dr.  Grace  Raymond  Hebard’s  book,  ‘‘History 
and  Government  of  Wyoming,”  pages  10-35-36-46. 

The  original  country  which  embraces  that  part  of  Wyoming  now 
known  as  Jackson  Hole  (the  valley  being  about  sixty-five  miles  long 
and  ten  miles  wide)  was  acquired  in  1792,  by  explorations  made  in 
1805,  by  The  Astorian  Settlement  in  1811,  by  the  Florida  Treaty  in 
1819,  and  by  acknowledging  the  title  by  Great  Britian  in  1886 — em- 
bracing all  of  Oregon,  Washington  and  Idaho  and  parts  of  Montana  and 

From  the  year  1846  to  1868;  with  the  building  of  the  telegraph  line. 
Union  Pacific  railroad  and  other  signs  of  civilization  coming  to  Wyom- 
ing, the  people  of  this  vast  territory  thought  that  they  needed  some  form 
of  territorial  government  which  would  help  them  protect  themselves 
from  the  bloody  Indian  wars  and  thrilling  massacres.  In  1868  the 
people  asked  Congress  to  admit  Wyoming  as  a territory. 

On  July  25,  1868  President  Johnson  signed  his  name  to  a bill  which 
made  this  the  territory  of  Wyoming. 

The  territorial  officers  were  not  given  us  until  April  7,  1869. 

The  word  Wyoming,  which  means  “Large  Plains,”  comes  from  the 
Deleware  Indian  name,  Maughwawama. 

In  1867  there  were  only  two  counties  in  Wyoming;  Laramie  and 
Carter.  The  west  half  of  the  state  was  embraced  in  Carter  county. 
Uinta  County  was  later  formed.  This  was  divided  in  the  year  1911  into 
Lincoln  county.  In  1923  Teton  county  was  organized  with  Jackson  as 
the  county  seat.  Wyoming  became  a state  in  1890. 

Page  Twenty-six 

John  Colter  was  with  Lewis  and  Clark  and  left  the  party  on  its 
return  at  Fort  Mandan  and  in  the  fall  and  winter  of  1806  he  trapped 
in  Wyoming  on  the  streams  of  the  Big  Horn  and  Stinking  Water  (now 
called  Shoshone  river).  Mr.  Colter  crossed  into  Idaho  and  out  of  the 
state.  He  crossed  into  the  Yellowstone  Park  and  back  to  the  point 
where  he  entered  the  state.  He  carried  some  wonderful  tales  to  Clark 
when  he  returned  which  were  not  believed  at  the  time.  He  told  of  the 
marvelous  Yellowstone  which  he  found  in  1807.  Colter  is  not  only  the 
discoverer  of  the  Yellowstone  Park  but  the  first  white  man  to  enter 


In  1811  the  Pacific  Fur  Co.,  under  John  Jacob  Astor  sent  an  ex- 
pedition into  the  mountains.  They  crossed  the  Big  Horn  Mountains, 
going  up  the  Big  Horn  River,  then  to  Wind  River  through  what  is  known 
as  the  Shoshone  Indian  Reservation,  near  Union  Pass.  There  they 
sighted  the  three  snowy  peaks  of  the  Grand  Teton  mountains  and  named 
them  “Pilot  Knobs.”  They  then  traveled  down  Hoback  river,  north  along 
the  Snake  river,  turning  west  and  leaving  the  valley  going  over  the  Teton 
Pass.  These  people  were  the  original  pathfinders  of  the  present  splen- 
did auto  road  over  Teton  pass  and  down  Hoback  canyon. 

In  1828  William  Sublett  discovered  Jackson  lake,  which  is  south  of 
Yellowstone  Park.  He  named  the  valley  Jackson  Hole  after  his  friend, 
David  Jackson,  who  was  exploring  at  that  time. 

Bonival  explored  in  Wyoming  in  1834  coming  down  the  Hoback 
canyon.  While  with  Bonival,  Hoback  took  sick  and  died,  Hoback 
canyon  is  named  after  him. 


In  1896  Captain  Harris  interested  eastern  capitalists  to  finance  a 
mining  project  on  Whetstone  creek,  a tributary  of  Pacific  creek. 

They  brought  a mining  outfit  in;  including  a saw-mill,  a ton  of 
quicksilver,  wheescrapers  and  a complete  ferry  boat  and  cable  to  cross 
Snake  river,  when  they  came  to  it.  They  constructed  the  road  as  they 
went  over  swamps,  streams  and  mountains. 

The  mine  was  located  on  a little  flat,  where  below  they  built  a flume 
ten  feet  wide  and  one  hundred  feet  long,  consisting  of  four-inch  planks, 
filled  with  three  wide  holes  to  act  as  riffles  to  catch  the  gold.  The  plan 
being  to  haul  the  gravel  to  the  mouth  of  the  flume  and  the  swift  stream 
to  carry  it  through. 

On  account  of  finances,  and  the  project  not  paying,  they  stopped 
and  the  work  was  abandoned. 

The  only  thing  salvaged  being  the  saw-mill  and  that  was  purchased 
of  the  mining  company  by  S.  N.  Leek. 

Page  Twenty -seven 

Native  Flowers  7,  Service  Berries  2,  Indian  Paint  Brush  ( W yarning  Stale  Flower) 
3,  Blue  Bells  4,  Sego  Lily  5,  Columbine  6,  Wild  Geranium 

Page  T wen ty -eight 


The  first  Post  Office  in  Jackson  Hole  was  established  in  1892.  Mr. 
Fred  White  was  the  Postmaster.  They  named  it  Marysville  at  first, 
then  later  changed  it  to  Jackson.  Mr.  Fred  White  served  as  Postmaster 
until  1901. 

The  mail  was  carried  into  the  valley  first  from  Rexburg,  Idaho  and 
later  from  Haden,  Idaho  and  finally  from  Victor,  Idaho. 

At  first  the  settlers  took  turns  going  for  the  mail.  In  the  winter  they 
went  on  snowshoes  and  in  summer  they  used  packhorses  to  bring  the 
mail  over  the  mountain. 

The  first  Post  Office  building  stood  north  of  Frank  Peterson’s  ranch 
on  the  school  section.  The  mail  carriers  were  Mr.  J.  L.  Eynon  and  Mr. 
Frank  Parson. 

Mrs.  John  Simpson  was  the  second  Postmaster.  She  had  the  Office 
during  the  year  of  1901.  While  she  was  in  charge  the  Post  Office  was 
located  on  the  Simpson  ranch,  about  a half  mile  east  of  Jackson. 

Mrs.  John  Anderson  was  the  third  Postmaster.  She  had  the  Office 
during  the  year  of  1902.  She  again  moved  it,  this  time  to  a place  about 
a mile  and  a half  west  of  Jackson. 

Mrs.  Sara  McKean  was  the  fourth  Postmaster.  She  had  the  Post 
Office  from  1903  to  1920.  This  was  really  the  first  Post  Office  in 
the  town  of  Jackson. 

T.  H.  Baxter  was  the  fifth  Postmaster.  He  kept  the  Office  for  one 

Mr.  Henry  Frances  was  the  sixth  Postmaster.  He  also  served  one 
year.  W.  E.  Lloyd  is  the  present  Postmaster — taking  the  Office  in 

The  other  Postoffices  in  Jackson  Hole  are:  Wilson,  Kelly,  Moran, 
Elk,  Grovont,  Zenith,  Teton,  Hoback  and  Moose. 

Flowers  and  Vegetation  of  Jackson  Hole 

A larger  part  of  Jackson  Hole  is  covered  with  timber.  Lots  of 
it  is  valuable  for  commercial  purposes  besides  being  a very  good  water 
shed.  Among  the  varieties  are:  Douglas  (red)  fur,  Englemen  spruce. 
Lodge  Pole  Pine,  Balsm,  Pinion  Pine,  Cedar,  Mahogany,  Cottonwood, 
Quakingaspen,  Rock  willows,  Creek  willows  and  Tag  Alder. 

The  wild  berry  producing  plants  are:  Service  Berries,  Chocke 
cherries.  Wild  currants.  Wild  raspberries.  Gooseberries,  Thimble  Ber- 
ries, Oregon  grapes.  Strawberries,  and  Huckleberries. 

There  are  a great  variety  of  flowers  growing  in  Jackson  Hole  at 
all  elevations.  The  Indian  Paintbrush  is  the  Wyoming  state  flower. 
Flax,  Columbine,  Motherhubbard,  Bluebells,  Cowslips,  Moss-water  lily. 
Rose,  Geranium,  Shooting  stars,  Sand  Lillies,  Johny-Jumpups,  Forget- 

Page  Twenty -nine 

1,  Broivn  Trout  2,  Blacktail  Deer  3,  Antelope  4,  Moose  5,  Pine  Squirrel 
Page  Thirty  6,  Antelope.  7,  Mountain  Sheep 

me-nots,  Wild  roses,  Violets,  Lily-of-the-valley,  Dandelines,  Bleeding 
Hearts,  Monks  hood.  Wild  hol’ly-hock,  Sego  lilies  and  many  others, 
grow  in  the  country  as  well. 

During  late  summer  flowers  can  be  seen  growing  along  the  edge  of 
a snowbank  up  in  the  mountains  where  the  snow  lays  until  very  late 
summer.  In  the  higher  mountains  (quite  often)  one  will  see  where 
there  are  small  glaciers  and  along  the  edge  of  the  snow  there  will  be 
flowers  growing  during  July  and  August. 

The  Animals,  Birds  and  Fish  of  Jackson  Hole 

The  elk,  moose,  deer,  mountain  sheep  and  antelope  are  all  the  big 
game  animals  of  Jackson  Hole.  These  animals  inhabit  the  marshes  and 
high  timbered  mountains  during  the  summer  months.  During  the  winter 
the  elk  come  down  to  the  Government  feed  ranches  where  they  are  fed 
hay  during  the  severe  winter  months. 

During  the  winter  of  1922-23,  15,000  elk  were  fed  by  the  state  of 
Wyoming  and  the  United  States  Government. 

Until  1899  the  hunting  law,  in  Wyoming,  gave  all  residents  the 
right  to  kill  what  game  they  needed  for  their  own  use,  but  not  waste  any 
meat.  It  also  excluded  non-resident  hunters  from  killing  any  game, 
without  first  securing  a non-resident’s  licence.  This  bill  was  made  for 
the  State  Legislature  by  D.  C.  Nowlin  and  William  Manning.  Its  pur- 
pose was  to  exclude  non-resident  guides,  protect  the  game  and  create  a 
game  fund. 

The  present  game  licence,  of  $2.50,  is  for  identification  of  residents. 

The  other  animals  of  Jackson  Hole  are:  mountain  lions,  wolverines, 
wolves,  grizzly  and  black  bears,  coyotes,  lynx,  otter,  martin,  beaver, 
muskrats,  woodchucks,  badgers,  rabbits,  ground  squirrels,  pine  and  fly- 
ing squirrels,  weasels,  gophers  and  field  mice.  There  are  not  any 
snakes,  except  little  harmless  water  snakes. 

There  are  a great  many  varieties  of  birds  in  Jackson  Hole.  Those 
that  stay  here  all  the  year  are:  wild  geese,  wild  ducks,  golden  eagles, 
bald  eagles,  hawks,  loons,  owls,  ravens,  rain  crow,  crested  or  blue  jay, 
magpies,  camprobbers,  sage  hens,  blue  grouse  and  pin-tail  grouse. 

The  birds  that  stay  here  only  during  the  summer  are:  sand-hill 
crane,  sand  pipers,  osprey,  (king  fisher)  gulls,  pelicans,  blue  herron, 
night  hawks,  curlews,  swallows,  robins,  meadow  larks,  blue  birds,  hum- 
ming birds,  yellow-headed  blackbird,  water  onsel,  teal  duck,  king  bird, 
and  many  other  common  birds  of  the  East  excepting  quail.  It  is  claimed 
that  there  are  125  different  kinds  of  birds  that  nest  in  Jackson  Hole. 

Trout  fishing  is  excellent  in  the  Jackson  Hole  country.  The  native 
cut-throat  trout  come  from  Alaska.  There  are  rainbow  trout  in  many 
of  the  streams  which  were  planted  by  the  Forest  Service  authorities. 

Page  Thirty -one 

Conaiit  trail*.  Hi  ere  the  Yirglnian 

crossed  The  feton  R 

1,  Golden  Eagle  (builds  nest  among  rocks)  2,  Chick'U-dee.  3,  Owls.  4,  Fish-Hawk  and 
Nest.  5,  Camprobbers.  6,  Bald  Eagle  (builds  nest  in  trees).  7,  Elk 

Page  T hirty-two 

In  1892  the  brown  mackinac,  and  brook  trout  were  planted  in  Lewis 
lake  by  the  United  States  Fish  Commission.  This  makes  Jackson  Hole 
one  of  the  best  game  hunting  and  fishing  sections  in  the  world. 

Forest  Reserves 

The  Federal  Forest  Service  of  the  Government  is  in  charge  of  the 
United  States  department  of  agriculture.  Government  forest  work  be- 
gan as  far  back  as  1876.  The  first  forest  reserves  were  in  the  Yellow- 
stone Park  timberland  reserve.  It  was  created  by  President  Harrison. 

Forest  lands  are  for  commercial,  recreational  and  industrial  pur- 

The  chief  causes  of  fires  are  by  careless  smokers,  lightning,  campers 
and  steam  sawmills. 

The  forest  acts  as  a reservoir  or  water  shed  for  preserving  the  snow 
and  moisture  until  later  in  the  season,  when  it  is  needed  for  irrigation 

The  Yellowstone  Park  Timberland  Reserve  was  created  March  30th 
and  September  10th,  1891.  Later  it  was  called  the  Yellowstone  Forest 
Reserve.  The  area  was  increased  at  that  time.  The  Teton  National 
Forest,  which  includes  all  of  Jackson  Hole,  was  created  from  the  Yellow- 
stone National  Forest  on  July  1,  1908. 

Charles  Deloney  was  the  first  supervisor.  He  was  appointed  on 
July  7,  1898. 

W.  Armor  Thompson  succeeded  Mr.  Deloney  in  1901.  Mr.  R.  E. 
Miller  succeeded  Mr.  Thompson  in  August,  1902.  A.  C.  McCain  suc- 
ceeded Mr.  Miller  in  July,  1918  and  is  still  supervisor. 

The  rangers  have  been  as  follows:  John  J.  Fisher,  Ronald  W.  Brown, 
Sr.,  Hugh  McDermot,  Henry  Bircher,  C.  N.  Woods,  Charles  Fisher,  L. 
W.  Reeves,  L.  C.  LaPlant,  Emil  Wolff,  Donald  McDonald,  E.  C.  Car- 
rington, E.  E.  Edgleston,  Y.  D.  Alsop,  John  Eee,  John  Raphael,  Fred 
Graham,  A.  N.  Davis,  J.  G.  Imeson,  D.  S.  Imeson,  A.  M.  Austin,  W.  W. 
Smith,  Edward  Romey,  B.  L.  Colter,  R.  Rosencrans,  Richard  Old,  Al- 
bert Gunther,  W.  H.  McKahan,  C.  S.  Horel,  Roy  Conner,  E.  R.  Harris, 
and  F.  Buckenroth. 

First  Schools  in  Jackson  Hole 

The  first  school  in  Jackson  Hole  was  started  in  1894  at  South  Park, 
now  known  as  Cheney. 

It  was  a subscription  school  held  in  one  room  of  the  old  homestead 
building  belonging  to  Sylvester  Wilson. 

It  served  very  well  for  all  entertainments  as  dances  and  socials. 
It  was  one  of  the  first  log  cabins  in  Jackson  Hole.  It  is  still  standing 
there  and  used  as  a machine  shed. 

I*(ige  Thirty-three 

^ V •«;.'.;.i-  • '•vfS7\i'  *'*5av\-  •/• 
SJSC^'?}'  •'^'<'>'  *:  •S^VsV^'S'-  • 

.^i  . 

'•  r L ■■*■  * 

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• f -'1  *^’ 

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1,  Jackson  J^ublic  School.  2,  First  Lo^  Ranch  House,  with  a Board  Floor,  Built  in  1885 
hy  John  Carnes.  3,  First  School  House  Built  in  Jackson  Hole  (Pupils  Skiis  Used 
in  Coining  to  School).  4,  St.  John  Hospital  (Built  of  Logs) 



Henry  Johnson  was  the  first  teacher.  There  were  twelve  white  chil- 
dren and  one  Indian  boy. 

They  had  spelling  tests  and  the  children  spelled  against  their 
parents.  Each  father  built  a bench  and  desk  for  his  children. 

They  also  had  a paper  called,  ‘‘The  Jackson  Hole  Kicker.”  This 
paper  was  read  at  the  programs.  Each  person  wrote  up  the  news  they 
knew  and  handed  it  to  the  secretary.  That  is  the  way  the  people  heard 
the  news  throughout  the  valley. 

The  second  school  was  held  in  the  winter  of  1895.  This  school  was 
taught  by  Mr.  Gardner.  This  school  was  also  a subscription  school  and 
was  held  in  a one-room  log  cabin,  on  the  John  Wilson  place. 

The  third  school  was  held  in  the  first  school  house  (see  picture) 
built  in  Jackson  Hole.  It  was  built  on  the  Ervin  Wilson  place.  It  is 
still  standing.  The  teacher  was  Miss  Susie  Clark  from  Idaho  Falls, 
Idaho.  She  is  now  Mrs.  Hitt. 

Miss  Clark  taught  the  first  public  school  in  the  valley  in  1896.  Miss 
Clark  taught  a three  months’  summer  term. 

The  fourth  school  was  also  held  in  the  new  school  house  in  the  year 
of  1897.  Miss  Florence  Yarnell  was  the  teacher. 

The  fifth  school  was  held  in  the  same  school  house  in  the  year  of 
1898.  It  was  taught  by  Miss  Lula  Hammond  from  Blackfoot,  Idaho. 
Miss  Hammond  is  now  Mrs.  Frank  Tanner. 

The  sixth  school  was  held  in  the  same  year  of  1898 — Miss  Hammon 
teaching  during  the  summer  months  at  South  Park  and  Miss  Sarah 
Holden  from  Darby,  Idaho  taught  the  three  autumn  months  at  Wilson, 
Wyoming.  The  school  was  held  in  one  room  of  the  E.  N.  Wilson,  or 
“Uncle  Nick”  Wilson  home. 

The  eighth  school  was  taught  in  1899  by  Miss  Murry  from  Boise, 
Idaho,  at  South  Park  and  Mrs.  Florence  Horton  taught  the  same  year  at 
Flat  Creek  school  house.  It  was  built  up  near  the  Crawford  ranch. 

It  was  the  second  school  house  in  Jackson  Hole.  Miss  Hammond 

The  ninth  school  was  taught  by  Mr.  Allred  at  South  Park.  The 
county  being  short  of  funds  caused  this  to  be  a subscription  school  too. 
The  school  districts  were  divided  into  the  Wilson,  Crovont  and  Zenith. 
The  people  built  school  houses  of  their  own. 

The  tenth  school  was  taught  by  Miss  Galligher  in  the  year  of  1901 . 

It  was  held  at  the  old  Mart  Nelson  place,  near  the  central  part  of  die 
Jackson  school  district.  The  Flat  Creek  and  South  Park  children  at- 

The  eleventh  school  (1902)  was  taught  by  Miss  Gallagher,  at  South 
Park  School. 

During  the  twelfth  school  year  (1903)  there  were  three  schools  held 
in  the  Jackson  school  district.  Miss  Grosh  taught  at  South  Park,  Miss 

Page  Thirty-fiv 

Forrester  at  Flat  Creek  and  Miss  Gallagher  at  Jackson.  This  was  the 
first  school  taught  in  the  town  of  Jackson.  It  was  held  in  the  Jackson 
Club  House  (1903). 

Two  boxes  were  furnished  each  child  (by  Charles  Deloney’s  store), 
a large  one  for  a desk  and  a small  one  for  a chair.  The  pupils  con- 
sisted of  seventeen  boys  and  eight  girls. 

The  first  morning  there  was  a parade  starting  from  Charles  De- 
loney’s old  store.  Each  child  carrying  their  two  boxes.  At  the  last 
there  was  a boy  riding  a horse  and  carrying  a sack  of  hay  for  the  horse’s 
noon  feed. 

Mr.  Jack  Hicks  had  charge  of  the  Club  House  and  let  the  school  use 
it  free  of  charge.  That  winter  was  very  cold  and  each  family  fur- 
nished three  loads  of  wood  in  their  turns. 

The  next  term  of  school  (1904)  was  also  held  in  the  Club  House. 
They  used  tables  and  benches  for  desks  and  seats.  Dr.  Melton  was  the 

In  1905  the  first  log  school  house  was  completed  in  the  town  of 
Jackson.  It  was  built  south  of  where  the  present  school  house  now 
stands.  There  were  about  twenty-four  pupils.  Miss  McNish  was 

The  next  term  of  school  was  held  in  the  log  school  house,  in  1906, 
with  Miss  Tarrgison  as  teacher.  There  were  about  twenty-four  pupils. 

From  1907  to  1913  schools  were  held  in  the  same  log  school  house 
with  the  following  teachers:  Miss  Mae  Smith  (now  Mrs.  Mae  Love- 

joy)  and  Miss  Maude  Smith  teaching  during  the  winter  of  1908-09. 

During  the  year  of  1910  there  were  two  teachers  in  the  Jackson 
school,  this  being  the  first  year  that  they  had  had  more  than  one  teacher 
for  all  of  the  grades.  The  teachers  were  Mr.  James  Williams  and  Miss 
Melisa  Smith.  After  this  year  they  had  more  teachers  as  the  school 

The  next  year  the  teachers  were:  Miss  Dayton,  Miss  Holland,  Miss 
Mary  Mabin,  Miss  Georgia  Ely  (now  Mrs.  Crail).  This  year  there 
were  two  school  houses.  The  one  held  in  the  log  school  house  was  taught 
by  Miss  Mary  Mabin  and  Miss  Georgia  Ely  taught  in  the  Vogel  house. 

The  first  two-story  brick  school  house  was  built  during  that  term. 
There  were  only  four  rooms  completed. 

The  next  term  of  school  (1914)  was  held  in  the  new  school  house. 
They  had  four  different  rooms.  The  teachers  were  Mr.  Dere,  professor. 
He  taught  the  seventh  and  eighth  grades.  Mrs.  Dere  was  the  fifth  and 
sixth  grade  teacher.  ‘‘Mitt”  Robison  was  the  third  and  fourth  grade 
teacher  and  Georgia  Ely  was  the  first  and  second  grade  teacher. 

The  next  term  of  school  (1915)  was  also  taught  in  the  new  school 
house.  F.  C.  Hemphill  was  principal,  also  seventh  and  eighth  grade 
teacher.  A.  V.  Wilson  was  the  fifth  and  sixth  grade  teacher.  Chloe 
Page  Thirty-six 

Mahoney,  third  and  fourth  grade  teacher.  Rosemond  Fiscus  was  the  first 
and  second  grade  teacher. 

During  this  term,  on  December  10th,  the  new  school  house;  also  the 
little  log  building,  caught  fire  and  burned.  The  rest  of  the  term  was 
held  in  the  different  churches  in  the  town.  The  high  school  and  seventh 
and  eighth  grades  were  held  in  the  gymnasium  room  of  the  Episcopal 
Rest  House.  The  fifth  and  sixth  grades  in  the  Latter-day  Saint  (Mor- 
mon) church.  The  third,  fourth  and  first  and  second  grades  were  held 
in  the  Baptist  church. 

The  next  term  of  school  (1916)  was  started  in  the  churches.  In  the 
middle  of  the  term  they  moved  to  the  present  school  house.  It  is  made 
on  the  same  plan  as  the  other  one.  There  are  four  rooms  up  stairs  and 
four  down  stairs.  They  put  stoves  up  in  the  place  of  a furnace. 

E.  N.  Moody  was  the  professor.  He  taught  the  ninth  and  tenth 
grades  in  high  school.  A.  V.  'Wilson  was  the  seventh  and  eighth  grade 
teacher.  Chloe  Mahoney  fifth  and  sixth  grade  teacher.  Ann  Reid,  third 
and  fourth  grade  teacher.  Rosemond  Fiscus,  first  and  second  grade 

Mr.  Hemphill  was  again  principal  during  the  next  term  of  school 
(1917).  He  taught  the  ninth  and  tenth  grades.  Miss  Nancy  Hemphill 
taught  the  seventh  and  eighth  grades.  Miss  Phyliss  Kimball,  the  fifth 
and  sixth.  Miss  Frances  Curtiss,  third  and  fourth  grades  and  Miss 
Fostina  Forester  (now  Mrs.  D.  H.  Haight)  was  the  first  and  second 
grade  teacher. 

The  next  term  (1918),  Phylliss  Kimball  was  the  principal.  Miss 
Maude  Lovejoy  assisted  with  the  high  school  work.  Miss  Frances 
Curtiss  was  the  fifth  and  sixth  grade  teacher.  Miss  Anna  Reid  (now 
Mrs.  Hunter)  was  the  third  and  fourth  grade  teacher.  Miss  Rosemond 
Fiscus  was  the  first  and  second  grade  teacher. 

The  next  term  of  school  (1919),  Rev.  Nash  was  principal.  He 
taught  the  seventh  and  eighth  grades.  There  was  not  a high  school  this 
year  as  most  of  the  pupils,  who  were  ready  for  high  school,  went  to  out- 
side schools.  Mrs.  James  Wilson  was  the  third  and  fourth  grade  teach- 
er. Mrs.  Don  Haight  was  the  first  and  second  grade  teacher. 

The  next  term  of  school  (1920),  Mr.  Warren  G.  Bunn  and  Miss 
Shreaves  taught  the  high  school.  This  was  the  first  year  that  they  had 
separate  teachers  for  the  high  school  and  elementary  school.  Mr.  Doug- 
las Sornsen  taught  the  seventh  and  eighth  grades  the  first  half  of  the 
school  year — Mrs.  E.  P.  Ellis  finishing  the  term.  Agnes  Slacher  taught 
the  fifth  and  sixth  grades.  Mrs.  Amy  Moody  taught  the  third  and 
fourth  grades.  Mrs.  Saunders  was  the  first  and  second  grade  teacher. 

The  next  term  of  school  (1921-22),  Mr.  John  A.  Kyle  was  professor. 
Miss  Shields  helped  him  teach  the  high  school.  Mrs.  E.  P.  Ellis  taught 
the  seventh  and  eighth  grades.  Mrs.  Amy  Moody  taught  the  fifth  and 

Page  Thkty-seven 

Seventh  and  Eighth  Grades  of  Jackson  Public  School  and  Their  Teacher  (1923-24) 

who  collected^  the  material  and  wrote  this  book. 


Donald  Ferrin 
Ruth  Harp 
Lavetta  Timmins 
Hazel  Williams 

(Eighth  Grade) 

Fay  Ferrin 
John  Ryan 
Bill  Wagner 
Fern  Wilson 

( Seventh  Grade) 

Emily  Ferrin 
Arthur  Irwin 
Bernice  Blackett 
Elizabeth  Callahan; 
Fern  Knutson 
Edward  Lumbeck 
Marjorie  Smith 

Nell  Wagner  • 
Phyllis  Boyle 
Nit  A Davis 
Lana  Gregory 
loLA  Lloyd 
Marion  Nethercott 
Margaret  Tanner 

Russel  Wort 

Page  Thirty-Eight 

sixth  grades.  Miss  Martha  Maren  taught  the  third  and  fourth  grades. 
Mrs.  Blaine  taught  the  first  and  second  grades  for  about  three  months, 
when  she  was  taken  sick  and  soon  died.  Miss  Devero  finished  the  term. 

The  following  year  of  school  (1923-24),  Mr.  John  A.  Kyle  was  the 
professor.  Miss  Winterfield  assisted  in  teaching  the  high  school.  Mrs. 
Amy  Moody  taught  the  seventh  and  eighth  grades.  Miss  Florence  C. 
James  taught  the  fifth  and  sixth  grades.  Miss  Mamie  Burkland  was  the 
third  and  fourth  grade  teacher.  Miss  Peggie  McNight  (now  Mrs.  John  A. 
Kyle)  was  the  hrst  and  second  grade  teacher. 

The  present  term  of  school  started  in  September,  1923  and  will  end 
May  23,  1924. 

Mr.  J.  W.  Harp  is  the  superintendent.  E.  0.  Baird  and  Miss  Daisy 
Berg  were  employed  as  teachers  in  the  Jackson-Wilson  High  School, 
Miss  Lillian  Swanson  took  her  place  after  the  holidays.  Mr.  Roland 
W.  Brown,  Jr.,  is  seventh  and  eighth  grade  teacher.  Mr.  Brown  was 
appointed  “Health  Crusade  Director”  of  Jackson  by  the  State  Depart- 
ment. Mr.  Terry  P.  Kelly  is  fifth  and  sixth  grade  teacher.  Miss  Belle 
Yarbrough,  third  and  fourth  grade  teacher.  Miss  Dena  Knudson  hrst 
and  second  grade  teacher. 

This  is  the  hrst  year  that  the  Jackson-Wilson  High  School  has  been 
an  accredited  high  school. 

There  are  thirty-two  students  enrolled  in  the  high  school  at  present 
and  ninety-four  in  the  elementary  school. 

The  Jackson  Parent-Teacher  Association  was  organized  about  three 
years  ago.  During  its  meeting  held  March  7,  1924  (Roland  W.  Brown, 
Jr.,  chairman)  a discussion  was  conducted  by  Superintendent  J.  W. 
Harp,  which  resulted  in  plans  being  made  to  build  a new  gymnasium  on 
the  block  of  ground  given  to  the  school  by  Mr.  R.  E.  Miller. 

On  March  15th,  16th, and  17th  practically  all  of  the  men  and  boys 
of  Jackson  volunteered  to  get  material  for  a “gym.”  Some  went  up 
Cache  creek  with  teams  to  get  out  the  timber  while  others  went  down  to 
Snake  river  to  haul  gravel  for  the  foundation.  The  ladies  furnished 
dinner  each  day  for  the  workers. 

A splendid  community  spirit  and  the  co-operation  of  all  the  people 
has  been  shown  in  the  project  of  building  a much  needed  gymnasium. 

Besides  the  school  at  Jackson  there  are  the  following  schools  in 
the  valley:  South  Park,  Flat  Creek,  Kelly,  Zenith,  Grovont,  Wilson, 
Buffalo,  Spread  Creek,  Teton,  Hoback,  Porcupine,  Elk  and  Moran. 

These  are  all  of  the  schools  in  Teton  County  with  the  exception  ol 
the  one  at  Alta,  Wyoming,  in  Teton  Valley. 

Mrs.  Eva  Lucas  is  County  Su})erintendent  of  Schools  of  Teton 
County  in  Wyoming. 

Page  Thirty -nine 

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